Regardless of recognition and application of the theory of change approach in the social sector, little is known about the extent to which it has been used in the design and evaluation of programs and projects related to access to medicines. The barriers towards access to medicines by using TOC, along with their strategies, outcomes, and impact were examined. We used TOC with the impact “to increase ATM.” Through this process, different components of TOC were analyzed. Barriers to ATM were elaborated, which laid the foundation for the change. Outputs of the program were discussed at each level and strategies were identified for the better implementation of ATM intervention. It was found that an increase in physical, financial and social resources helped in establishing a sustainable healthcare system and guarantee universal healthcare coverage. In addition, there was an improvement in access to medicines for poor and underserved people and improvement in health outcomes for the marginalized population with the decrease in health disparities. It is urged that researchers evaluate complex interventions by employing this approach. To ensure the desired outcomes and ensure access to medicine for all, the stakeholders (state, non-state actors, pharmaceutical companies, policymakers, and donors) should invest resources and do a critical evaluation of programs for access to medicines.
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